All citizens are invited to sign this Appeal, that in a few days of confidential circulation was signed by over 250 personalities from academia, civil society, business community, of different political views and from all over the EU and even outside.

This Appeal, promoted by Roberto Castaldi (Director of the Centro studi, formazione, comunicazione e progettazione sull’Unione europea e la Global Governance, Italy), Yves Bertoncini (President European Movement in France, former Director of the Jacques Delors Institute), Anna Diamantopoulou (President of To Diktio think tank, former European Commissioner, Greece), Ulrike Guerot (Director of the European Democracy Lab, Germany) and Daniel Innerarity (Director of the Instituto de Gobernanza Democrática, Spain), in a few days of confidential circulation was signed by over 250 personalities from academia, civil society, business community, of different political views and from all over the EU, and even outside. Some had also relevant institutional experiences it. Among the signatories Anthony Giddens, Jo Leinen, Kalypso Nicolaidis, Gianfranco Pasquino, Dimitrij Rupel, Javier Solana, Nadia Urbinati, Yanis Varoufakis, Michel Wieviorka and many others.


Time for the United States of Europe!

We European citizens are scared by the return of war at the heart of Europe. The Russian invasion of Ukraine exposes the weaknesses and dependencies of the European Union and its member states, and their inability to project peace and stability. European, and especially Ukrainian, citizens are suffering for the costs of non-Europe in the fields of energy, fiscal, foreign and defence policies.

EU member states spend on defence more than twice as much as Russia, without any significant deterrent capacity. Raising national defence expenditures to 2% will only increase the waste unless aimed at creating a real defence union. This could start by implementing a 60,000-strong Rapid Deployment Force, decided at the European Council in Helsinki in 1999; the ‘communitarisation’ of the Eurocorps to provide the EU Military Committee with the embryo of an integrated EU Command and control structure, essential to create and manage that Rapid Deployment Force, permanently under the command of the EU; the creation of a European Training Centre for military cadres to develop a European common strategic culture. This could be financed by pooling at European level the defence expenditure increases currently decided by Member states, or a certain % of national defence expenditures – just like 20% of national reserves were pooled in the creation of the monetary union – or national contributions to the European Defence Fund and the European Peace Facility could be excluded from the calculation of the structural deficit, just like those to the European Fund for Strategic Investments. The same could apply to the share of national military expenditure devoted to European projects, such as those in the framework of Permanent Structured Cooperation or for European missions. An EU defence must be at the service of an EU foreign and security policy, and thus requires a political union with a single representation of the EU in the international institutions and arena.

A structural solution to the energy crisis rests with an energy union and the speedup of the green transition via increased investments on renewable sources and energy efficiency. Energy prices could be halved through an EU single energy and gas grid; the joint purchase of energy from third countries, like for vaccines; and an EU strategic reserve, like the US.

Energy and defence policies require EU investments and thus a fiscal union - endowing the EU with fiscal powers and a borrowing capacity through a European Treasury - and a single foreign policy. This implies a true political union with the Commission, as the federal executive responsible in front of the European Parliament, in charge of managing the new energy, fiscal, foreign and defence policies; accompanied by the co-decision between the Parliament and the Council and the complete abolition of unanimity to the whole EU decision-making system.

In the Conference on the future of Europe the Citizens Panels and the digital platform proposals converge in demanding a more united, efficient, social and democratic Europe, based on a real Constitution.

We European citizens believe this is the defining hour for the EU. Therefore, we call upon:

  • the Conference on the Future of Europe - involving European and national institutions, civil society and citizens – to demand a new European Constitution to establish (as sketched out also in the current German coalition agreement) a federal European Republic, including foreign, security, defence, fiscal and energy policies;
  • the European Parliament to draft and propose a comprehensive Treaty reform or a new European Constitution on the basis of the Conference results and the new situation created by the Russian invasion of Ukraine;
  • European Council to decide the start of a new Convention that shall take the European Parliament draft as its basis. 


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Among the first to adhere were:

Alberto Alemanno (Founder of  The Good Lobby), Frédéric Allemand (University of Luxembourg and SciencesPo Paris), Cristina Ares Castro-Conde (University of Santiago de Compostela), Isabelle Aubert (Université Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne), Enrique Ayala (Fundación Alternativas), Konstantinos Bagiatis (former Dean of Thessaly University), Kostas Bakoyánnīs (Major of Athens), Antonio Bar Cendon (Universita de València, former Vicerrector de la Universidad de Cantabria), Stefano Bartolini (European University Institute), Belén Becerril (Deputy director Royal Institute for European Studies Universidad CEU San Pablo), Léonce Bekemans (Jean Monnet Professor ad personam, Bruges), Gabriele Bischoff (MEP, Vice-Chair AFCO), András Bozóki (Central European University), Mercedes Bresso (former Presidente della Regione Piemonte), Flavio Brugnoli (Director of Centro Studi sul Federalismo Foundation), Hauke Brunkhorst (Head of the Institute of Sociology at the University of Flensburg), Susanna Cafaro (Università del Salento, Associazione per la Democrazia Sovranazionale), Rino Castaldi (Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare), Fabio Massimo Castaldo (Vicepresident of the European Parliament), Carmelo Cedrone (Coordinator of Laboratorio Europa/Eurispes), Maurizio Cermel (Segretario Generale of the Foundation Venezia per la Ricerca sulla Pace), Jorge Chaminé (President of the Centre Européen de Musique), Stefan Collignon (Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna di Pisa), Josep M. Colomer (Georgetown University, Washington DC, and the Institute of Political and Social Studies in Barcelona), Silvia Costa (Commissaria Straordinaria per Santo Stefano in Ventotene), Philippe Crignon (Nantes Université), Carlo Curti Gialdino (Università di Roma la spaienza, Vicepresident of Istituto Diplomatico Internazionale), Juan Manuel de Faramiñán Gilbert (Director del Observatorio de la Globalización de la Universidad de Jaén, Director Internacional de la RED de Universidades Latinoamericanas y del Caribe), Miguel A. del Val (Universidad Politécnica de Madrid), Jean De Munck (Catholic University of Louvain, directeur du CriDIS), Gordana Djurovic (University of Montenegro), Maciej Duszczyk (Former Vice-rector of the University of Warsaw), Petros Efthymiou (former President of the Parliamentary Assembly of OSCE), Maurizio Ferrera (Università di Milano, President of Network for the Advancement of Social and Political Studies), Massimo Fichera (University of Turku, FInland), Andrej Findor (Comenius University Bratislava), Pietro Finelli (Direttore Domus Mazziniana), Giorgos Floridis (former Ministro degli interni e delle Finanze), Elsa Fornero (Università di Torino, former Ministra del Lavoro), Alfredo García Prats (Universitat de València), Pietro Gargiulo (University of Teramo, Editor in Chief “La Comunità Internazionale”), Gerodimos (Bournemouth University and Salzburg Academy for Media & Global Change), Andrei Gheorghiță (Lucian Blaga University of Sibiu), Angelos Giannakopoulos (National University of Kyiv), Lord Anthony Giddens (former Director of the London School of Economics), Andrew Glencross (Catholic University of Lille), Manuel González-López (University of Santiago de Compostela, Major of Outes), Giorgio Gori (Major of Bergamo), Sandro Gozi (President of the Union of European Federalists), Francesco Grillo (Director Vision Think Tank), Joachim Gryspolakis (former Dean of the Technical University of Crete), Eduard Güell (Universitat Oberta de Catalunya, Más Democracia), István Hegedűs (chairman, Hungarian Europe Society), Fernando Iglesias (President of the World Federalist Movement), Luca Jahier (former President of the European Economic and Social Committee), Eric Jozsef (Co-founder Europa Now), Anna Karamanou (Former MEP), Anthony Kefalas (Vice Chair Democracy & Culture Foundation), Lino Marius Klevesath (University of Göttingen), Guillaume Klossa and Francesca Ratti (Co-presidents of Civico Europa), Stelios Kympouropoulos (Member of the European Parliament), Laura Leonardi (Director of the Centro di Eccellenza Jean Monnet dell'Università di Firenze, Director of the Centro Interdipartimentale di Ricerca CEJM), Lucio Levi (Università di Torino, Director of the Federalist Debate, former President of Istituto di Studi Altiero Spinelli), Alberto Majocchi (University of Pavia, former President of ISAE - Istituto di Studi e Analisi Economica, and Segretario generale del Movimento Federalista Europeo), Lazar N. Maloutas (Major of Kozani), Yannis Maniatis (former Minister of Environment, Energy and Climate Change), Alberto Martinelli (Università degli studi di Milano, President of the Fondazione AEM-Gruppo a2a, Past President international Social Science Council), Koldo Martinez Urionabarrenetxea (Senador en las Cortes Generales), Fabio Masini (Università di Roma Tre, Director Euractiv Italia), Giuseppe Martinico (Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna di Pisa), Marcello Messori (Director Luiss School of European Political Economy), Gian Giacomo Migone (Università di Torino, former italia Senator), Guido Montani (Università di Pavia, former President of Movimento Federalista Europeo), Juan Moscoso del Prado (Director of Consejo Económico y Social, former spanish deputy), Kalypso Nicolaidis (European University Istitute, former Oxford University, Harvard University and ENA), Konstantinos Nikolis (deputy Governor of Hellenic Bank for Industrial Development and of the Social Security Foundation), Artur Nowak-Far (School of Economics, Warsaw), Antonio Padoa Schioppa (Università di Milano, former President odf the Biblioteca Europea Foundation and of the Centro Studi sul Federalismo), George Pagoulatos (Athens University of Economics & Business and College of Europe), Maria Donata Panforti (University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, Vice President of the Int. Society of Family Law), Ioannis Papadopoulos (Director Center for Research on Democracy and Law University of Macedonia), Dimitris Papastergiou (Major of Trikala, President of Central Union of Greek Municipalities); Gianfranco Pasquino (Accademia dei Lincei, and Università di Bologna), Fabienne Peraldi Leneuf (Vice-Présidente "Stratégie Europe" Université Paris1 Panthéon-Sorbonne), Thomas Perrin (Univesitè de Lille), Otto Pfersmann (Directeur d'études École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales), Adriano Prosperi (Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa), Anna Radwan (Founder Institute Europa, Warsaw), Alex Roche (Associate Director at IE University's Center for the Governance of Change), Domenec Ruiz Devesa (Board of Spinelli Group), Dimitrij Rupel (former First Rector of College ESLG, Rector of Slovenian University Nova Univerza, Slovenian Foreign Minister and President of OCSE), Luciano Saso (Pro-rettore Università di Roma La Sapienza, President of the UNICA network of the universities from the Capitals of Europe), Viviane Schmidt (founding Director of the Center for the Study of Europe at the Pardee School of Global Studies at Boston University), Emmanuelle Schon-Quinlivan (University College Cork), Martin Seeleib-Kaiser (Eberhard Karls Universität Tübingen), Konstantinos Simitsis (Deputy governor of Region of East Macedonia and Thrace, former Mahjor of Kavala), Javier Solana (former Foreign Minister, European Union's High Representative for Common Foreign and Security Policy, Secretary General of the Council of the European Union, Secretary-General of Western European Union and NATO), Céline Spector (Sorbonne Université), Jens-Boie Suck (University of Technology Chemnitz), Mario Telò (Université Libre de Bruxelles), Vladimir Tikhonchuk (University of Bordeaux), Plamen Tonchev (Institute of International Economic Relations Athens), Elisabetta Trenta (former Ministra della difesa), Loukas Tsoukalis (Director Eliamep), Araceli Turmo (Directrice adjointe de la MSH Ange Guépin, Directrice du Master 1 Droit européen et international, Universitè Nantes), Nadia Urbinati (Columbia University), Erik Uszkiewicz (Vice-chair of the Hungarian Europe Society), Tony Van der haegen (Co-founder Association Européenne de la Pensée Libre), Arjan van der Waal (European Democracy Lab), Yanis Varoufakis (Economist, former Greek Minister of Finance), Alessandra Venturini (University of Torino, Co-chair of the G20 Task force on Migration), Christos Verelis (former Ministry of Infrastructure and Transport), Manuel Villoria Mendieta (Director del Observatorio en Buena Gobernanza della Universidad Rey Juan Carlos de Madrid), Marius Wegrzyn (University of Gdansk), Michel Wieviorka (director of the Centre d'Analyses et d'Interventions Sociologique (CADIS) at the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, former president of International Sociological Association), Pavlos Yeroulanos (former Minister for Culture and Tourism), Brigitte Young (University of Münster).

Also signed:

Gabriele Abels (University of Tuebingen), Claudia Acquistapace (University of Cologne), P. Agelarakis (Common Law), Luca Alfieri (Tartu University, Estonia), Maurizio Albahari (University of Notre Dame), Maria Romana Allegri (Università di Roma La Sapienza), Maurizio Ambrosini (Università di Milano), Giuseppe Ambrosino (eCampus University), Francesco Amoretti (Università di Salerno), Achilles Anagnostopoulos (Chief Scientific Director TheraCell Laboratories), Fulvio Attinà (University of Catania), Elena Baracani (università di Bologna), Matteo Bassoli (Università di Padova), George C, Bitros (Athens University of Economics and Business), Madalin Blidaru (co-chair JEF Romania), Enrico Borghetto (Università di Firenze), Margherita Bozzano, Robert Bray (European Law Institue), Gabriele Caiati (Università di Milano), Oreste Calliano (Università di Torino), Enrico Calossi (Università di Pisa), Isabel Camisão (University of Coimbra), Enzo Caponetti (University of Liège), Antonia Carparelli and Adriana Cavarero (Università di Verona), Brunella Casalini (Università di Firenze), Alberto Castelli (Università di Ferrara), Giuliano Cazzola (ex sindacalista), Annalisa Ceron (Università di Milano), Makis Chatzoulas (CEO Forel SA), Alessandro Chiaramonte (Università di Firenze), Evi Christofilopoulou (Open Hellenic University), Michelangelo Conoscenti (Università di Torino), Paolo Cordella (Università di Padova), Giovanni Cordini (University of Pavia), Maurizio Cotta (Università di Siena), Claudio Cressati (Università di Udine), Andrea De Angelis (University of Lucerne), Nico De Federicis (Università di Pisa), Pierpaolo Degano (Università di Pisa), Pierre de Gioia Carabellese (LUMSA University), Fabio Dell'Acqua (Università di Pavia), Antonio Del Sole (Università di Parma), Tommaso Di Fazio (LABORATORIO EUROPA – EURISPES), Alberto Di Martino (Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna di Pisa), Carlo D'Ippoliti (Università di Roma La Sapienza), Aide Esu (University of Cagliari), Valeria Fargion (Università di Firenze), Veronica Federico (Università di Firenze), Elena Ferioli (Università del Molise), Giovanni Finizio (Università di Torino), Michele Fiorillo (Coordinator of Civico Europa), Giuseppe Foscari (Università di Salerno), Maurizio Franzini (Università di Roma La Sapienza), Bice Fubini (Università di Torino), Carlo Fusaro (Università di Firenze), Giulio Galdi (Università di Trento), Giampiero Gallo (Università di Firenze), Giulia Maria Gallotta (Università di Bari), Silvio Gambino (Università della Calabria), Matteo Garavoglia (Oxford University), Michele Gerace (Bar Europa), Valerio Giannellini (Ernesto Rossi and Gaetano Salvemini Foundation), Giuseppe Goisis (Università Ca' Foscari Venezia), Piergiorgio Grossi (Regional Secretary for Liguria of Movimento Federalista Europeo), Joachim Gryspolakis (Technical University of Crete), Olivia Guaraldo (University of Verona), Massimiliano Guderzo (Università di Siena), Marta Hernández Ruiz (Universidad CEU San Pablo), Michail Kalfidis, Maria Karagiannidou (London School of Economics), Gurutz Jáuregui (University of the Basque Country), Santiago Ibáñez Marsilla (Universidad de Valencia), Francesco Ingravalle (Università del Piemonte Orientale), Gianluca Introzzi (Università di Pavia), Andrea Landi (Università di Pisa), Giuliana Laschi (Università di Bologna), Galateia Laskaraki (Editor in Chief Marie Claire Greece), Barbara Licheri, Monica Livadiotti (Politecnico di Bari), Paolo Liverani (Università di Firenze), Serge Maillet, Nikos Marantzidis (University of Macedonia), Riccardo Marussi, Luigi Moccia (Università di Roma Tre), Wim Antonio Monasso (Member,International Commission of Jurists), Cristina Monge Lasierra (University of Zaragoza), Umberto Morelli (Università di Torino, Editor De Europa. European and Global Studies Journal), Claudia Morini (Università del Salento), Sheyla Moroni (Università di Firenze), Miltiades Nektarios (University of Piraeus), Giuseppe Nenna (Università eCampus), Simone Neri Serneri (Università di Firenze), Gianluigi Palombella ( Scuola Sant’Anna di Pisa), Triantafyllia Lina Papadopoulou (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki), Ioannis Papageorgiou (Aristotle University of Thessaloniki), Emmanuele Pavolini (Università di Macerata), Paolo Peerani (Head of Unit - Ispra Operational Nuclear Decommissioning and Waste Management), Massimo Pendenza (Università di Salerno), Beatriz Pérez de las Heras (Deusto University), Giulio Peroni (Università di Milano), Alberto Piazza (Università di Torino), Andrea Pisauro (Oxford University, and co-cordinator Europe for Scotland), Silvia Polidori, Franco Praussello (University of Genova), Charalampos Pronoitis (KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm), Marita Rampazi (Università di Pavia), Beatriz Rodríguez Sanz de Galdeano (Universidad Pública de Navarra), Maria Stella Rognoni (Università di Firenze), Gino Roncaglia (Università Roma Tre), Vincenzo Russo (Università di Roma La Sapienza), Stefano Salvia (Università di Pisa), Susana Sanz-Caballero (Universidad CEU Cardenal Herrera di Valencia), Georgios Siakantaris (Sociologist), Luca Simoncini (Università di Pisa), Sorina Soare (Università di Firenze), Carlo Sorrentino (Università di Firenze), Carlo Spagnolo (Università di Bari), Piergiuseppe Spolaore (Università di Milano Bicocca), Nicoletta Stame e Luca Meldolesi (A Colorni-Hirschman International Institute), Sergios Theodoridis (National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, and Aalborg University), Alberto Tonini (Università di Firenze), Raffaele Torino (Università di Roma Tre), Dominique Valla, Nicola Vallinoto (Executive Committee World Federalist Movement,) Simone Vannuccini (University of Sussex), Rafael Vázquez-García (University of Granada), Charis Vlados (Democritus University of Thrace), Roberto Verace, Tommaso Visone (Link Campus University), Tomasz P. Woźniakowski (European University Institue and Stanford in Berlin), Athanasios Ziliaskopoulos (University of Thessaly), Thilo Zimmermann (Universität zu Köln).